The Nautical Almanac & Its Superintendents
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Additional References


These reference, in alphabetic order, with notes have been provided by G.A. Wilkins. No attempt has been made to assimilate the two lists.

  1. Anon., c. 1986. The work of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office. In Royal Greenwich Observatory: Telescopes, Instruments, Research and Services: October 1 1980 - September 30 1985. RGO, undated. This report includes paragraphs on the new techniques for the presentation and typesetting of the almanacs.
  2. Archibald, R.C., 1948. Mathematical table makers. New York: Scripta Mathematica. See pp. 16-18 for notes on L. J. Comrie, with a list of his principal tables.
  3. Brown, E. W., 1919. Tables of the motion of the Moon. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  4. Croarken, Mary, 1990. Early scientific computing in Britain. Oxford University Press. Covers the developments in the NAO from 1925 to about 1947, including the work for the Admiralty Computing Service. It also describes the work of the Scientific Computing Service that was established by Comrie after leaving the NAO.
  5. Dick, Steven J., 1999. History of the American Nautical Almanac Office. In Fiala & Dick, 11-53. This contains is complementary to the paper by Wilkins about the history of H. M. Nautical Almanac Office and gives details about the introduction of punched-card machines and computers in USNO.
  6. Dunkin, Edwin, 1868. The Nautical Almanack. Leisure Hour, Jan. 1, 5-8.
  7. Dunkin, Edwin, 1886. Notes on some points connected with the early history of the 'Nautical Almanac'. J. Roy. Inst. Cornwall, 9, 7-18. The author's father, William Dunkin, was a computer for the Nautical Almanac from about 1804 until his death in 1838.
  8. Eckert, W. J., & Haupt, R. F., 1947. The printing of mathematical tables. Math. Tables Aids Computation, 2(17), 197-202, with plate of the 'electromatic table printing machine'. Includes background history and description of the IBM card controlled typewriter used for the American Air Almanac.
  9. Fiala, Alan D., & Dick, Steven J., 1999. Proceedings: Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium: U.S. Naval Observatory, March 3-4, 1999. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Naval Observatory.
  10. Forbes, Eric G., 1965. The foundation and early development of the Nautical Almanac. J. Inst. Navigation (London), 18 (4), 391-401.
  11. Hingley, P. D., & Daniel, T. C., (eds) 1999. A far off vision. A Cornishman at Greenwich Observatory. Truro: Royal Institution of Cornwall. This spiral-bound book (218 pp) contains a transcription of the auto-biographical notes of Edwin Dunkin (pp. 29-172), a foreword by Allan Chapman, an introduction by the editors and 6 appendices.
  12. Howse, Derek, 1989. Nevil Maskelyne: the seaman's astronomer. Cambridge University Press. An authoritative account of the early years of the Nautical Almanac and related matters.
  13. Jaschek, C., & Wilkins, G. A., editors, 1977. Compilation, critical evaluation and distribution of stellar data. Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 35. Dordrecht-Holand: Reidel Publishing Company. Although the papers in this and the following reference are primarily concerned with observational data, many of the new techniques were relevant to the storage and distribution of ephemerides and the results of computations on models of stars and stellar systems.
  14. Jaschek, C., & Heintz, W., editors, 1981. Automated data retrieval in astronomy. Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 64. Dordrecht-Holand: Reidel Publishing Company. Contains papers on a wide variety of topics, including a description of the UK STARLINK computer network.
  15. Morrison, L. V., 1978. Catalogue of observations of occltations of stars by the Moon 1943-1971. Royal Observatory Bulletin, No. 183. With 7 microfiche. The prediction and reduction of occultations. Supplement to Nautical Almanac 1938. Includes a photograph and account of the occultation machine.
  16. Porter, J. G., 1951. Punched card machines at Herstmonceux. J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 61(7), 185-189, with two plates. Mainly concerned with the IBM 602A calculating punch.
  17. Sadler, D. H., & Scott, W. A., 1966. A modern view of lunar distances. J. Inst. Navigation (London), 19(2), 131.
  18. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, 1976. Celestial mechanics. In J. Belzer, A. G. Holzman and A. Kent, editors, Encyclopedia of computer science and technology, vol. 4, 243-267. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York and Basel. In addition to giving a survey of the basic formulae of celestial mechanics and of the procedures for the numerical integration of the equations of motion, this paper contains a historical review of the use of computers (especially in the U.S. Naval Observatory and related organisations) for celestial mechanics and for typesetting.
  19. Wilkins, G. A., 1954. Calculation of the nutation from the new series. Improved lunar ephemeris. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  20. Wilkins, George A., 1999. The history of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office. In Fiala & Dick, 54-81. This paper gives a general account of the history and work of the Office. It includes additional references and a chronological list of the main events between 1767 and 1998.

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